EBM News
EBM News

DON’T BE A XEROTE – AN ARTICLE ON DEHYDRATION

Water – a vital nutrient to the life of every cell in our body. In adult human body water constitute 60% by weight and 80% of newborn’s weight. Each day humans should consume a certainamount of water to survive.

1. Adult male- about 3 liters
Adult female- about 2.2 liters
Water helps protecting tissues, spinal cord, joints, helps to remove
waste, aids in digestion, helps in brain function etc

2. If we don’t consume required amount of water it will results in dehydration.

A dangerous loss of body fluid caused by illness, sweating or
inadequate intake.
De means absence, hydration means water
There are three main types of dehydration
Hypotonic (primarily loss of electrolytes)
Hypertonic (primarily loss of water)
Isotonic (equal loss of water and electrolytes)
Water is exerted from the body in many forms like through urine
and stool, sweating and breathing ( exhaling CO2)3
.
PREVALENCE AND ETIOLOGY:
• Mainly results from increased fluid loss and decreased fluid
intake.
• Commonly found in elderly , infants, athletes, people living
in high altitudes and chronically ill.
CAUSES:
➢Exerting oneself in hot and humid weather
➢Side effect of certain medication
➢Gastroenteritis
➢Hyperglycemia
➢Peeing a lot
➢Vomiting
➢Diarrhea4.
SYMPTOMS:
SIGNS OF MODERATE DEHYDRATION:
❖Thirst
❖Dry or sticky mouth
❖Not peeing very much
❖Dark yellow pee
❖Dry cool skin
❖Headache
❖Muscle cramps
SIGNS OF SEVERE DEHYDRATION:
❖Not peeing or having very dark yellow pee
❖Very dry skin
❖Feeling dizzy
❖Rapid heartbeat
❖Rapid breathing
❖Sunken eyes sleepiness, lack of energy,confusion or
irritability
❖Fainting
❖shock
SIGNS FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN:
❖dry mouth and tongue
❖no tears when crying
❖dry diapers for 3 hours
❖sunken eyes, cheeks, soft spot on the top of skull5
❖high fever
❖no peeing for 8 or more hours
❖fast or weakened pulse
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:
Fluid loss accompanied by some degree of electrolyte loss
For example bicarbonate may be lost with diarrhoea but not with
vomiting
Fluid loss contains lower concentration of sodium than the
plasma
Serum sodium level rises
Thirst and dryness
Oliguria and dark coloured urine
REGULATION OF WATER BALANCE:
WATER GAIN WATER LOSS
Food and drink -2.2L/day skin&lungs- insensible
Water loss 0.9L/day
Metabolism -0.3L/day urine- 1.5L/day
Glucose+O2=CO2+H2O+ATP feces-0.1L/day
Intake(2.2L/day) +metabolic production (0.3L/day)–
output(0.9+1.5=0.1L/day) =0
DIAGNOSIS:
▪ Blood tests- blood samples may be used to check for
number of factors such as the levels of electrolytes
especially sodium and potassium for monitoring kidney
function
▪ Urinalysis – test done on urine can help show whether you
are dehydrated and to what degree and also to check
bladder infection6
▪ Dark coloured urine (colour of amber) is usually an
indicator of dehydration.
TREATMENT:
• Major treatment is to replace fluids and electrolytes that
have lost. This can be done by consuming clear fluids, such
as water, clear broths, frozen water or ice pops or sports
drinks7
.
• Oral rehydration solution (ORS) can be given
• Some patients will require intravenous fluids to rehydrate
• Consuming watery fruits and vegetables can prevent
dehydration
• Some natural remedies includes – buttermilk with salt ,
bananas due to rich potassium, tender coconut, barley
water, homemade ORS, lemon juice, orange juice for
increasing sodium, potassium and magnesium
• Consume 3to 4 liters a day8
.
CONCLUSION:
It is important to understand that the human body has a basic need
for hydration, specifically water consumption. Because the body
ant store water, we should constantly provide and supply it with
water to maintain body functions. So here I am saying that “
DEYDRATION IS NOT SOMETHING TO CRY ABOUT,
ITS JUST TO HAVE SHOWER INSIDE YOUR BODY”.
Drink water and stay hydrated always.

Dr R.Subhashini BSMS